Economy, Commerce, Agriculture, Fisheries

1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

Fishery research programs: establish additional fund for (see bill S. 1230). 3302.

3302; March 7, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of S.1230, a Gruening (D-AK) bill to amend the Kennedy-Saltonstall Act to increase funding for fisheries programs.

Agriculture: feed grains price support bill. 3720-3725.

3720-3725; March 10,1961; During debate on S.993, the Feed Grains Program for 1961, Muskie questions whether acreage or bushel reductions are more effective in maintaining price stability, and whether hiking price supports for one variety of feed grain over another contributes to higher overall poultry feed costs.

State alcoholic beverage agencies: clarify application of antitrust laws to certain contracts by (see bill S. 1247), 3855.

3855; March 14, 1961; Muskie is added as a cosponsor of S.1247, a Hart (D-MI) bill to clarify the application of federal antitrust law to the operations of state liquor agencies.

When the Prohibition Amendment was repealed in 1933, the bans on the importation and possession of liquor became explicitly subject only to State laws. Since many States chose to maintain a state monopoly on the sale of alcoholic beverages, state actions in this field had the potential of conflicting with federal antitrust law. DOUBLE CHECK WHAT THIS BILL WOULD HAVE DONE ABOUT IT.

Area redevelopment bill, 4032, 4033.

4032; March 15, 1961; During debate on S.1, the Area Redevelopment Act, Muskie makes a statement supporting the economic development goals of the bill, discusses the program's effects and cites Maine unemployment rates to justify its passage. Read Muskie's statement here.

The numbering of this bill (S.1) denotes that it was the first bill to be introduced in this session of the Congress. Traditionally, the first five bills introduced in a Congress reflect the priorities of the majority party. Designation as S.1 meant that the Democratic majority of the time was anxious to act on the widespread pockets of high unemployment around the country. This particular bill was also one on which President Kennedy had campaigned, and it thus became a priority for his party in the Congress.

U.S. agricultural workers: protect employment opportunities of (see bill S.1945), 9091.

9091; May 26, 1961; Muskie is added as a cosponsor of S.1945, a McCarthy (D-WI) bill to amend Title V of the Agricultural Act of 1949 to protect the employment opportunities of agricultural workers.

Portland Harbor, Maine: authorize improvement of (see bill S. 2394), 15216.

15216; August 9, 1961; Notice only of Muskie introduction of S.2394, a bill to authorize improvements to Portland Harbor.

An authorization is a statutory provision in a law which authorizes funding for a program, an agency or a project. The House of Representatives is often reluctant to fund programs or projects where no authorizing legislation exists. As a result, Senators seek to authorize local projects such as this one to make sure that when the appropriations bill reaches the Senate, the authority to appropriate the funds will be in place.

Farm Credit Act: amend, 16456, 16457.

Federal Loan Act: amend, 16456, 16457.

16456; 16457; August 21, 1961; Muskie clarifies a tax impact question arising in connection with the Farm Credit Act, S.1927, in an exchange with Sen Holland (D-FL). MAKE COPY OF THIS DEBATE.

Mexican farm labor: bill (H.R. 2010) to protect, 18781.

18781; September 8, 1961; In debate over the Mexican Farm Labor program, H.R.2010, Muskie briefly discusses with Senator McCarthy (D-WI) his proposed amendment, to raise minimum wages for agricultural workers, and whether the amendment is procedurally inappropriate since the underlying bill itself seeks to raise wages. Arguments had been made that opposition to McCarthy's amendment could be based on the principle that its subject matter should be approached through different floor and committee action.


1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

Residual fuel oil: import restrictions, 18340, 18341.

18340; 18341; September 6, 1961; Muskie participates in a discussion organized by Senator Pastore (D-RI) about the unfairness of the restrictions on the importation of residual fuel oil into New England. Muskie's description of the program and its effects on Maine can be read here.

At this time, the domestic oil industry had successfully achieved an import ban against the New England states, preventing the importation of non-domestic residual fuel oil from Venezuela, to maintain domestic oil prices within the U.S. New England Senators, including Muskie, repeatedly attempted to repeal the import quotas but without success until the Arab Oil Embargo twelve years later.

Environment, Parks, Historic Preservation, Wildlife

1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

Northeastern Water and Land Resources Compact: consent of Congress to (see bill S. 374), 553.

553; January 11, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a (Prescott) Bush 9(R-CT) bill, S.374, authorizing the creation of the Northeastern Water and Land Resources Compact. During this period, states which wished to cooperatively work on river-basin management or other inter-state cooperative programs had to seek affirmative Congressional approval of these state "compacts." It was usual for Senators from a region to cosponsor such efforts on behalf of their region, whether their own state were directly involved or not. Senator Bush originally introduced his Northeastern Water and Land Resources Compact bill in the prior Congress, but it was not enacted and died at the close of the Congress. Bills must be reintroduced in each new Congress in order to be considered for action.

Udall, Stewart L.: Cabinet nomination, 1035.

1035; January 21, 1961; Muskie makes a very brief statement supporting Senate confirmation of Stewart L. Udall as Secretary of the Interior. Read the text here.

Douglas, William 0.: speech on natural resources, 6943.

Natural Resources, by William 0. Douglas, 6944.

6943, 6944; May 1, 1961; Muskie inserts a speech given by Justice William O. Douglas to the Maine State Society on April 28, 1961, on the subject of conservation.

Tellico Plains, Tenn., by Senator Ellender, 9980.

9980; June 12, 1963; Muskie acts as the floor manager of a bill, S.848, conveying land to the town of Tellico, in Tennessee. In that capacity, he asks that a statement by Senator Ellender (D-LA) about the bill be made part of the record.

In the Senate, legislation is usually managed through the Senate floor debate by the Chairman of the Committee or Subcommittee which played the major role in developing and reporting the bill to the full Senate. The bill manager is the person who determines if proposed amendments are acceptable without debate or not, and, in consultation with the majority leader, how many hours of debate should be allocated to the bill and its amendments.

Floor debate on non-controversial minor bills, such as this one, conveying land to a local municipality, is generally "managed" with minimal interaction from any except the directly interested party, and such floor management chores were often given to more junior Senators when the responsible Chairman was unavailable. In this instance, Muskie is shepherding a non-controversial bill through for a senior Senator, Ellender, and simply asks that Ellender's statement explaining the bill be printed in the Record.

Federal-aid highway bill (H.R. 6713), to amend, 10223.

10223; June 13, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of an amendment introduced by Cooper (R-KY) and Mrs. Neuberger (D-OR) to the highway bill, to extend for two additional years the authority in the 1958 highway construction law which gives states the right to regulate billboard advertising along the National Defense Highway system.

Nursery tree planting: use certain soil bank funds for (see bill S. 2563), 19710.

Use of Certain Property for State Forestry Work, by, 19710.

19710; September 15, 1961; Hart (D-MI) introduces, on behalf of Muskie, S.2563, a bill authorizing the Agriculture Department to permit state forestry work on certain lands. Muskie's introductory remarks and background materials are included. When a Senator is forced to be absent, a colleague can introduce his proposals and statements for publication in the Record.

State forestry work: permit certain property to be used for (see bill S. 2638), 21232.

21232; September 26, 1961; Notice of Muskie introduction of a revised bill, S.2638, restating the authority of the Agriculture Department to allow state forestry work on certain lands.

The introduction of revised versions of bills is a fairly common phenomenon. Upon its first introduction, a bill is referred to the Committee of jurisdiction. If that Committee finds that the bill is, for some reason, improperly drafted, committee staff will work with a Senator's staff to re-draft the legislation in better form. When a committee receives a bill, it is commonly circulated immediately to the Executive Branch agency or department whose functions it would affect. In some instances, Executive Branch agencies propose alternative ways of achieving the bill sponsor's goals, and bills are then re-drafted accordingly.

Letter: Conservation in national forests, to the President, 21243.

21243; September 26, 61; Muskie is one signatory to a letter to President Kennedy about a U.S. Forest Service plan. Senator McGee (D-WY), who speaks about national forestry conservation, inserted a report on the plan and a letter to the President. Muskie's signature appears on the letter.

Udall, Stewart L.: tribute, 21334.

Pleas for a Green Legacy, by Stewart L. Udall, 21334.

Letter: Maine conservation program, to Governor Baxter, from Secretary Udall, 21334.

21334; September 26, 1961; Muskie inserts a Christian Science Monitor article by Interior Secretary Stewart Udall in which Udall cites Governor Baxter of Maine as a model for his own conservation efforts. In addition to the article, Muskie inserts a Udall letter to Governor Baxter. (The Udall article cites a number of individuals and officials who have worked to set land aside for conservation purposes.)

National Security/Foreign Affairs

1961 87th Congress, 1st Session

White Fleet: establish to render emergency assistance to other nations (see bill S. 324),465.

465; January 10, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a Humphrey (D-MN) bill, S.324, to authorize the establishment of a White Fleet to render emergency assistance and medical care to third world nations. This bill was first introduced by Senator Humphrey in 1960, but was not enacted. Bills that are not enacted in the same Congress in which they are introduced must be re-introduced in the next Congress.

Foreign Service Academy: establish (see bill S. 407), 1392.

1392; January 30, 1961; Muskie is added as a cosponsor to a Symington (D-MO) bill, S.407, to authorize the establishment of a Foreign Service Academy.

Coffin, Frank M.: nominated Director of the Development Loan Fund, 1722, 1724.

Editorial: Coffin To Direct Development Loan Fund, from Maine newspapers, 1723, 1724.

1723; 1724; February 6, 1961; The nomination of Frank M. Coffin to be Managing Director of the Development Loan Fund is voice voted. Muskie statement supports the nomination and includes editorials from Lewiston Evening Journal and Daily Sun, Portland Sunday Telegram, and the Waterville Sentinel.

Letter: Peace Corps proposals, to Sargent Shriver, from, 3790.

Peace Corps, creation of, 3790, 3791.

3790; 3791; March 13, 1961; Muskie makes a statement on the great success of the Peace Corps in appealing to the public imagination, and includes a letter he has sent to the Director, Sargent Shriver, with suggestions for international education programs for the time when the Peace Corps would have a statutory basis, instead of being based only on a President's Executive Order, as it was at this time. Read Muskie's statement and the letter here.

White Fleet: establish to render emergency aid to other nations (see S. Res. 154), 9086.

9086; May 26, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of S.Res. 154, a Humphrey (D-MI) resolution in support of the creation of a White Fleet to provide aid in international disasters striking coastal populations.

Resolutions are used in lieu of or sometimes in support of direct legislation as a means of putting the Senate, the House or the full Congress on record in favor or in opposition to some action or proposal. Resolutions are often used in situations where a statutory law could infringe on the President's authority in the foreign policy field; in some cases they reflect a change in political circumstances, where a Senator recognizes that while a bill may not have the support necessary to be passed, a resolution on the same subject matter could be approved.

Simple Resolutions and Concurrent Resolutions do not have the force of law; do not require the President's signature; and cannot be vetoed by a President. Each House of Congress has detailed rules governing the subject matter of simple resolutions (resolutions needing only a majority of one house of the Congress), and concurrent resolutions (requiring both houses of the Congress to agree to identical wording). Joint resolutions, which require passage and agreement by both houses and presidential signature, except when they embody proposals to amend the Constitution (which require the further assent of three-fourths of the States).

Cuba: Castro's offer to trade prisoners for bulldozers, 9130.

Income tax: deductions for contributions to Castro tractor fund, 9131.

9130; May 26, 1961; Muskie endorses President Kennedy's call for voluntary donations to purchase tractors for the Cuban people, a statement made in response to Castro's offer to exchange local malcontents for tractors. Muskie objects to making such donations tax deductible because, he says, that is tantamount to a government endorsement of such an "exchange" and could give credence to the claim that the government was being successfully blackmailed by Castro.

9131; This appears to be a Congressional Record Index error. The Muskie statement, which does refer to income tax deductions, is complete on the previous page.

Foreign Aid Objectives, by Secretary Rusk, at Conference on International Economic and Social Development, 10754.

10754; June 20, 1961; Muskie inserts the text of Secretary of State Dean Rusk's speech defending foreign aid, which Rusk gave in response to a question at the 8th National Conference on International Aid and Social Development, June 15, at the Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C.

Leahy: launching of, 12012.

Launching of the Leahy, by Senator Mansfield, 12012.

Mansfield, Mrs. Mike: tribute to, 12012.

12012; July 7, 1961; Muskie statement on the launching of a frigate from Bath Iron Works by Mrs. Mike Mansfield, wife of the Senate Majority Leader. Ships are traditionally launched by women. The text of Muskie's remarks and the Mansfield speech can be read here.

United Nations: strengthen authority to prevent war (see S. Con.Res. 37), 14475.

14475; August 3, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a Clark (D-PA) resolution, S.Con.Res. 37, to give the United Nations greater authority to act to prevent the outbreak of armed hostilities between member nations.

Appointment to International Parliamentary Union, 14815.

14815; August 7, 1961; The Vice President's appointments to the Interparliamentary Union include Muskie as one of the alternates for a scheduled meeting on September 14 in Brussels.

Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (S. 1983) authorize, 15434-15440.

Foreign Assistance: borrowing authority, 15434-15437.

Government Corporation Control Act, 15437.

15434-15440; August 10, 1961; During debate on the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, S.1983, Muskie makes a statement defending the proposed mechanism for long-term financing of foreign aid in the bill, describing the borrowing authority as analogous to lending by a commercial bank. He lists the safeguards written into the law against the possible loss of Congressional control over the lending program. In the course of this discussion, Muskie engages in a colloquy with Senator Gruening (D-AK) about the Alliance for Progress and debates briefly with Senator Morse (D-OR) the openness of the borrowing authority proposed for the foreign aid bill.

Foreign Aid Planning Vital, from Lewiston Daily Sun, 16438.

16438; August 21, 1961; Muskie inserts a Maine editorial supportive of longer-term foreign assistance programs from the Lewiston Daily Sun. The insertion of articles and editorials from home-state newspapers is a well-established Senate habit.

Disarmament Agency for World Peace and Security, 18754.

18754; September 8, 1961; During debate on S.2180, a bill creating a Disarmament Agency, Muskie speaks in support of its passage. Initially, the creation of this agency was sparked as much by the internal organizational needs of the U.S. government and the perceived need to send a more coherent international message of U.S. willingness to engage in arms limitation negotiations. Muskie's brief remarks can be read here.

Memorandum: annual review of development lending program by Appropriations Committee, 19538.

19538: This Congressional Record Index reference is an error. Page 19538 reflects a September 14, 1961 proceedings of the House of Representatives, and Muskie is nowhere mentioned.

Human Resources Programs

1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

AMVETS' National Convention, by Harold Russell, A7086.

Russell, Harold: tribute, A7086.

A7086; September 8, 1961; Muskie inserts a speech given at the national conference of AMVETS by the three-term AMVETS President, Harold Russell, and describes his career.

Unemployment: alleviate conditions of in certain areas (see bill S. 1), 138.

138; January 5, 1961; Muskie is listed as one of 43 original cosponsors on a Douglas (D-IL) bill, S.1, to establish an effective program to alleviate conditions of substantial and persistent unemployment and under-employment in certain economically distressed areas.

This bill was the Area Redevelopment Act, a measure the Senate had passed three times without successfully enacting it into law. At the time, the national unemployment rate was 6.5 percent, and 100 areas of "substantial and persistent unemployment" had been identified, affecting 15 million citizens. In Maine, the areas were Biddeford-Sanford, Lewiston-Auburn. The unemployment rate in these identified areas of "substantial and persistent unemployment" was about twice the national rate, and in twenty of these regions, it was 15 percent.

President-elect John F. Kennedy appointed a task force on unemployment and area redevelopment, which recommended the approach taken by this bill. His endorsement accounts for the high number of cosponsors, and the bill's status as S.1.

The designation S.1 as a bill number signifies that the bill is a priority for the Senate majority in that Congress. Bill numbers S.1 through S.10 have traditionally been set aside to enumerate the five bills that the majority and minority see as their most significant legislative proposals for a given year.

Veterans: grant national service life insurance to certain (see bill S. 977), 3048.

3048; March 2, 1961; Muskie is added as a cosponsor to a Long (D-HI) bill, S.977, to grant National Service Life Insurance to certain veterans excluded from the program.

Education: program of financial assistance for (see bill S. 1021). 3048

3048; March 2, 1961; Muskie is added as a cosponsor to a Morse (D-OR) bill, S.1021, to create a program of federal financial assistance to education. Although federal assistance to education is today taken for granted, in 1961 there was no federal funding for education in any significant form except for the college assistance to veterans under the GI bill, and certain college construction programs.

Television: grants to States for educational use of, 4364.

4364; March 21, 1961; During debate on S.205, a bill to expedite the use of television transmission facilities in public schools and colleges, Muskie raises questions about the scope of a grant to lower-income small states. The theory that television could be a revolutionary learning tool for schools was still a very live one at this time.

Public health services: simplify grants-in-aid to States for (see bill S. 1467), 5103.

5103; March 29, 1961; Notice only of Muskie introduction of S.1467, a bill to simplify federal grants-in-aid to States for public health services programs. The term "grants-in-aid" is no longer used. The shorter term, "grants" is now the usual usage.

Public Health Service programs: handling of Federal grants, 5104.

5104; March 29, 1961; Muskie's introductory remarks on S.1467, a bill to simplify federal grants to states for public health services. Muskie's strong interest in federalism and his service on the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations led to his frequent sponsorship of bills to streamline the grant process for state and local governments, and to make grants themselves more flexible so that states would have broader choices as to how use the funds. The process of simplifying and streamlining federal programs of aid to the states is an ongoing project.

Education: Federal aid bill, 8444, 8528, 8743, 9051

8444; This page reference is an error in the Congressional Record Index. There is no debate on the federal education aid bill, nor any Muskie statement on this page.

8528: May 22, 1961; Muskie statement on school desegregation during debate on a Bush (R-CT) amendment to S.1021, the School Assistance Act. Muskie asks whether the goal of integration and the goal of federal aid to education can and should co-exist in the same bill.

8743: May 24, 1961; During debate on S.1021, the School Assistance Act, Muskie and Goldwater (R-AZ) disagree on the question of federal aid to religious schools and federal aid to schools in general.

9051: May 25, 1961; Muskie makes a closing statement in support of federal financial aid to public schools, in S.1021, the School Assistance Act.

Labor-Management Relations, by Presbyterian Church, 10610.

Right-to-work legislation: position of Presbyterian Church, 10609, 13007

Presbyterian Church: right-to-work legislation, 10609,13007.

Report: Right-to-Work Laws. by United Presbyterian Church, 13007.

10609; June 16, 1961; Muskie commends the Presbyterian Church for its condemnation of right to work laws, and publishes the text of the resolution adopted by the Church. Both his remarks and the resolution may be read here.

13007; July 20, 1961; Muskie inserts a background paper on the Presbyterian Church's Right To Work resolution containing a fuller explanation of the Church's position on the issue.

Reorganization Plan No. 5 (NLRB), 13024, 13027.

Analysis of Reorganization Plan No. 5 (NLRB), by National Labor Relations Board, 13025.

Telegrams: Reorganization Plan No. 5 (sundry), 13026.

NLRB: backlog of cases, 13024.

13024; July 20, 1961; During debate over S.Res. 158, a resolution opposing Reorganization Plan # 5 for the National Labor Relations Board, Muskie argues that the Plan is needed to deal with workloads which cause delays; the Senate Resolution of disapproval is indefinitely postponed.

In these years, a new incoming Administration would propose plans to reorganize Executive Branch agencies and departments, and the plans could be disapproved by the Congress. If Congress declined to disapprove, the reorganization plan would take effect - an early example of the legislative veto in the relationship between the Congress and the Presidency.

Although reorganization plans dealt with a broad range of agencies, they were generally all referred to the Committee on Government Operations, on which Muskie served.

Departments of Labor, and Health, Education, and Welfare appropriation bill (H.R. 7035), 14405.

Public welfare personnel, 14405.

14405; August 2, 1961; During debate on H.R.7035, the Labor-HEW Appropriations bill, Muskie makes a statement supporting the additional funds in the bill for two programs: captioned movies for the deaf and public welfare personnel training grants.

Deaf persons: educational and training films for, 14405,18443, 18444

Deaf: educational and training films for (see bill S. 2511), 18443

Text of bill: films for deaf persons, 18443.

Letter: Films for deaf persons, from Sterling McMurrin, 18444.

14405: August 2, 1961; Muskie thanks the Appropriations Committee for adding funds for the program of films for the deaf.

18443; 18444; September 7, 1961; Muskie joins Senator Pell (D-RI) in the introduction of S.2511, a bill to expand the captioned films for the deaf program so as to provide a funding authorization for these films. He makes the argument that the quantity of materials available for the deaf is extremely limited and lacks the commercial potential which might create an incentive for the private sector to meet the need.

An authorization is a statutory provision in a law which authorizes funding for a program, an agency or a project. The House of Representatives is often reluctant to fund programs or projects where no authorizing legislation exists. And programs which originate as pilot programs within agencies are particularly subject to being cut to make way for some Congressional priority during the funding process.

Education: federally impacted areas, 18950, 18962-18965, 19045

Education: federally impacted areas, includes entire country, 18965.

18950; September 11, 1961; During debate on S.2393, a one-year extension of aid for school construction and operating costs in federally-impacted areas, Muskie discusses briefly that some school districts already have committed themselves to servicing bond debts to improve schools in the affected areas and should not therefore be precluded from eligibility for federal grants just because they took action on school improvement before Congress created the federal program.

Muskie said: "In addition to the statement the Senators have made, I believe it should be stated that there are districts which have so committed their revenues to the servicing of such bond issues that for some years in the future they cannot be expected to do an adequate job in the fields of school construction and the payment of teachers salaries For that reason , as well as the other reasons stated, I hope the senior Senator from Michigan will accept the amendment offered by his junior colleague."

The Hart (D-MI) proposal to include such school districts in the bill is accepted as a perfecting amendment to the basic McNamara (D-MI) amendment which allocated funds among the states for school construction costs.

18962-18965; During debate on the underlying bill, Muskie engages in a colloquy with Metcalf (D-MT) seeking to dispel the claim that local school districts were being "dictated to" through the grant of school aid funds. Muskie remarks that general aid to education from the federal government will become reality because people want it, and cites the Maine state legislature, which is both rural and Republican but which nonetheless passed a resolution favoring federal aid. The debate rests on the circumstance that action in the House Rules Committee has sought to force the Senate to accept a longer-term extension of the education bills, rather than the 1-year extension requested by President Kennedy. Read excerpts from the debate here.

19045; September 12, 1961; Muskie agrees to the withdrawal of the amendment he cosponsored for additional school aid, in part because earlier in the debate, a letter from President Kennedy indicated the President's preference for delaying action on a definitive aid bill for a year and in the meantime accepting the 1-year extension bill then on the floor. The Kennedy letter is on Page 19012.

Educational television, 19087.

Educational TV, by Kenneth G. Larrabbee, 19087-19089.

19087; September 12, 1961; Muskie inserts an article on educational television from Shopping Notes, a Maine local newspaper, written by Ken Larrabbee, about the use of television as an audiovisual teaching aid especially useful in thinly populated regions.

Larrabbee went on to cover Muskie in Washington for many years.

Governmental Affairs

1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

Woodrow Wilson Memorial Commission, create (see S.J.Res.51), 2157

2157; February 16, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor on a Williams (D-NJ) resolution, S.J.Res. 51, to create a Commission for the purpose of establishing a Woodrow Wilson Memorial.

Loveless, Herschel: nomination to Renegotiation Board, 4099.

4099; March 16, 1961; Muskie makes a brief statement supporting the nomination of a former Iowa Governor, Herschel Loveless, to the Renegotiation Board.

Postal rates: adjust (see bills S. 1812, 2382), 7280, 14647

7280; May 4, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a Williams (D-NJ) bill, S.1812, to adjust postal rates.

14647; August 4, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor on a Monroney ( D-OK) bill, S.2382, seeking to adjust postal rates.

At this time, the Postal Service was a federal agency and its activities were directly subject to Congressional action. The appointment of postmasters in a Senator's state was a source of patronage; postal rates were set directly by the Congress; and tiny post offices were kept open, regardless of the number of persons they served, even as the demographics of a town or county changed over the decades. The Postal Service of today took shape in the 1970s, as Congress relinquished control over the agency's daily operations.

Reorganization Plan No. 1 (SEC), 10998-11000

Funston, Keith: statements by, 10999.

10998-11000; June 21, 1961; During debate over the President's Reorganization Plan for the Securities and Exchange Commission, Muskie was active in the exchange over S. Res.148, the resolution to disapprove the reorganization plan. In the course of the debate, Muskie cites the testimony of Keith Funston, President of the New York Stock Exchange, in connection with the proposed Reorganization Plan for the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Arguments over the power of governmental reorganization have waxed and waned throughout the nation's history, and various mechanisms have been adopted over time to formalize the process by which the powers and responsibilities of agencies are expanded or contracted. At this time, Presidents submitted formal reorganization plans to the Congress which took effect unless affirmatively rejected. This is one form of the legislative veto which the Congress used for decades to attempt to overcome Administration policies with which it disagreed. The use of the legislative veto over agency regulations was overturned by the Supreme Court ruling, I.N.S. v. Chadha, in 1983.

Reorganization Plan No. 4 (FTC), 11736, 11737.

Reorganization Plan No. 4: questions and answers of Chairman Dixon relative to, 11736.

11737; June 29, 1961; During debate over S. Res.147, opposing the reorganization plan for the Federal Trade Commission, Muskie participates in the debate, in support of the proposed reorganization and against the resolution. A letter to McClellan (D-AR), Committee Chair, responding to specific queries asked by the Committee is inserted as part of Muskie's presentation in the debate over approval of the reorganization plan.

Reorganization Plan No. 3 (CAB), 11747.

11747; June 29, 1961; During debate on S.Res.143, a resolution rejecting Reorganization Plan 3 for the Civil Aviation Board, Muskie makes a brief statement suggesting that this plan has the same shortcomings as the SEC plan and that he will therefore oppose it and vote for the resolution. On the vote, he gave a live pair to Sen. McCarthy (D-WI).

A "live pair" is a mechanism by which Senators who are forced to be absent from votes can indicate the implications of their votes by pairing with a Senator who would vote the opposite way and is prepared to abstain from casting a formal vote, usually to do his colleague a favor. The point of such a pairing is to be able to demonstrate that the Member's absence on a particular vote would not have affected the outcome of the vote. Senators are sensitive to the appearance of missing too many votes, because their voting records are often a subject raised in their reelection campaigns.

Grants-in-aid to States: periodic congressional review of (see bill S. 2286), 12965.

12965; July 20, 1961; Notice only of Muskie introduction of S.2286, a bill to provide for periodic Congressional review of grants-in-aid to the states. This is one of the early signs of Muskie's long-standing interest in the concept of "sunset" laws - procedural mechanisms to force the Congress to periodically review older programs to determine if they still deserve funding.

States: congressional review of grants-in-aid programs for, 12969.

Grants-in-aid programs: congressional review, 12969.

12969; July 20, 1961; Muskie's introductory remarks on his bill, S.2286, establishing an automatic 5-year termination of federal grant programs. The bill would have required Congressional Committees to review grant programs on a regular schedule with a view to terminating those which no longer served a useful purpose. This is one of the early signs of Muskie's long-standing interest in the concept of "sunset" laws - procedural mechanisms to force the Congress to periodically review older programs to determine if they still deserve funding. Despite strong efforts, by Muskie among others, Congress has remained resistant to the idea of terminating programs on a regular basis.

General Services Administration: restore funds to Transportation and Public Utilities Service (Proxmire amendment), 14142, 14143.

Independent offices appropriation bill (H.R.7445),14142,14143.

14142; 14143; July 31, 1961; During debate on the Independent Agencies appropriation, H.R.7445, Muskie expresses support for a Proxmire (D-WI) amendment which would have restored the Administration's request of $300,000 for the General Services Administration's representation of the federal government as a consumer in utilities rate-making procedures. Muskie's statement and part of the debate can be read here.

Committee on Government Operations, 18312.

18312; September 6, 1961; Muskie issues notice of the Committee Report No. 87-879, on S.1633, a bill creating a Department of Urban Affairs and Housing.

Constitutional Law, Civil Rights, Civil Law

1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

This Is My Country, before the Florida Civil Liberties Union by, 258.

258; January 5, 1961; Williams (D-NJ) inserts the text of a Muskie speech to the Florida Civil Liberties Union. Muskie speaks of civil liberties.

Berryman, William L., for relief (see bill S. 591),1265.

Coolidge, Osvaldo R., for relief (see bill S.590),1265.

Simonian, Nishan Der, for relief (see bill S.592),1265.

1265; January 26, 1961; Notice only of Muskie private bill introductions.

Private bills were more frequently used at this time to rectify unforeseeable problems that periodically arose when agency regulations or limits on agency actions created unfair situations. Persons who were unable for legal reasons to bring suit for redress would request private legislation to carve out an exception to take account of their individual circumstances.

As the administrative flexibility and reach of agencies has expanded over the decades, the need for such private bills has also contracted, although any Senator can introduce a private legislative relief bill whenever a situation arises that seems to call for this solution. Private bills are generally processed by the Judiciary Committee, which seeks to secure administrative relief wherever possible. In that sense, private bills can be seen as a kind of extended casework, where an individual's claim is pursued by people expert in the field.

Qualifications of electors: amend Constitution relative to (see S.J. Res. 58), 3446.

3446; March 8, 1961; Muskie is added as a cosponsor of a Holland (D-FL) proposal, S.J.Res. 58, to amend the Constitution relative to the qualifications of presidential electors.

Hegyi, Istvan and Paula, for relief (see bill S. 1531), 5447.

5447; April 6, 1961; Notice only of a Muskie introduction of a private bill.

Private bills were more frequently used at this time to rectify unforeseeable problems that periodically arose when agency regulations or limits on agency actions were in conflict or in some other way created an unfair situation. Persons who were unable for legal reasons to bring suit for redress sought private legislation to carve out an exception to take account of their individual circumstances. As the administrative flexibility and reach of agencies has expanded over the decades, the need for such private bills has also contracted, although any Senator can introduce a private legislative relief bill whenever a situation arises that seems to call for this solution. Private bills are generally processed by the Judiciary Committee, which seeks administrative relief wherever possible. In that sense, private bills can be seen as a kind of extended casework, where an individual's claim is pursued with the implicit threat of legislation as a means of encouraging agencies to seek resolution by more imaginative means.

Kaszap, Terez: recommit bill for relief of, 9977.

9977; June 12, 1961; Muskie indicates that following the Judiciary Committee's report, additional information was received which requires further review and the bill is sent back to the Committee.

Casework for individual citizens is traditionally a portion of any Senator's work. With the expansion of programs and entitlements, more people come into direct contact with federal agencies and there is potential for more problems to arise. Those cases which reach the level of becoming private bills highlight one of the enduring problems with casework: Very frequently, citizens do not always provide all the information necessary to resolve a case. When such a situation arises and a private bill has been reported, it is sent back, or recommitted to the Judiciary Committee, for further consideration in light of the new information.


1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

Hennings, Thomas C.: eulogy, 2696.

2696; February 24, 1961; Muskie contributes a statement during Senate tributes to Thomas C. Hennings, the late Senator from Missouri. Hennings was first elected to the Senate in 1950 and died in office in September, 1960.

When a Senator dies in office, it is usual for eulogies to be delivered a week or two later. In this case, however, the Senator's death came as the Senate was recessing for the election campaign of 1960, so his eulogies were given in the early days of the following Congress.

It is a long-standing Senate tradition to eulogize Senators who leave the body either by reason of death, retirement, or defeat. When Senators die in office, tributes by their colleagues are collected and reproduced for the benefit of surviving family members and the community in which the Member lived. In exceptional circumstances, booklets of such tributes are printed by the Government Printing Office for wider distribution. And in extremely exceptional circumstances, individuals such as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis are honored by such tributes and booklets. After Senator Muskie's death, the transcript of his funeral service and Senate tributes were printed as a booklet and distributed to interested parties.

Hope, Bob: present gold medal to (see S.J. Res. 88), 7925.

7925; May 15, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor, along with most of the Senate, of a Symington (D-MO) resolution. S.J.Res. 88, authorizing the issuance of a gold medal for Bob Hope.

Baker, Robert G.: awarded degree, 9958.

9958; June 12, 1961; Muskie joins colleagues in praise of Bobby Baker's getting a Doctorate of Law from American University.

Bobby Baker served as Secretary for the Majority under Lyndon Johnson and Mike Mansfield, rising from a position as a Senate page. He became notorious several years later for influence-peddling, and it is likely that most of the many Senators who praised his accomplishment wished they could withdraw their comments from the historical record.

In addition to Senators' own staffs and the staff of Committees, who reflect the political sentiments of their employers, the Senate also employs a permanent staff of Parliamentarians, Clerks, messengers, and other factotums, as well as service personnel who repair furniture, service office machinery, and maintain the office buildings. There is a tradition of passing resolutions or making statements of congratulations on such milestones as retirements, anniversaries, and educational achievements.

Cormier, Lucia M.: tribute to, 12621.

12621; July 17, 1961; Muskie lauds Ms. Cormier as one of the first two women to become customs collectors following Senate approval of her nomination earlier in the day.

Rayburn, Sam: present gold medal to (see S.J. Res. 133), 18869.

18869; September 11, 1961; Notice of Muskie's name being added to S.J.Res. 133, the resolution honoring House Speaker Rayburn.

Senate Rules, Procedures, Assignments, and Housekeeping

1961 87th Congress, 1st Session

Appointed on committee, 467.

467; January 10, 1967; Muskie appears in the listing of majority committee designations. At the beginning of each new Congress, each party's caucus meets and assigns Senators to the standing legislative committees and special committees. The assignments are often printed in the Record.

Joint Committee on the Budget: establish (see bill S. 529). 1067.

1067; January 23, 1967; Muskie is listed as one of 65 cosponsors of a McClellan (D-AR) bill, S.529, to amend the Legislative Reorganization Act by creating a new Joint Committee on the Budget to improve the Congressional appropriations process.

Until passage of the 1974 Budget Act, Congress did not consider a unified budget but instead passed a series of 13 different appropriations bills each year. Assorted suggestions, such as a Joint Budget Committee, were offered but never seriously debated. It was not until budget deficits began to rise after 1969, that pressure to change this appropriating process was sufficient for passage of the Budget Act.

Congress: provide for summer recess of (see S. Con. Res. 16), 3302.

3302; March 7, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a McGee (D-WY) resolution, S.Con.Res. 16, to co-ordinate the Senate's August recess schedule with the school year so that Members with children could vacation with their children. Efforts to make the Senate a more family-friendly work place are a continuous feature.

Congress: summer recess for, 3370.

3370; March 7, 1961; Muskie makes a brief comment on S.Con.Res. 16, the resolution which would co-ordinate Senate recess scheduling with school vacation time, conveying Jane Muskie's thanks to Senator McGee (D-WY).

Full Text of Muskie Comment: I cannot let this opportunity pass without carrying out the instructions of Mrs. Muskie. She insists that I convey to the distinguished Senator from Wyoming our gratitude for this constructive idea.

Cannon, Howard: promotion to brigadier general, 3471.

3471; March 8, 1961; Congratulatory remarks on President Kennedy's nomination of Senator Cannon (D-NV) for promotion in the Air National Reserve, include Muskie remarks, which he made while serving as the presiding officer.

Committee on National Fuels Study (Special) : create (see S. Res. 105), 3700.

3700; March 10, 1961; Muskie is added as a cosponsor to a Randolph-Byrd(D-WV) resolution, S.Res.105, to create a Special Committee on the National Fuels Study.

Appointed on commission, 4958.

4958; March 28, 1961; Muskie is appointed to serve on the Senate Office Building Commission.

Traditionally, service on commissions dealing with Senate office buildings and renovations fall to members of the Senate Public Works Committee. They are also often given to more junior members because they constitute a time-consuming and usually thankless chore. At this time, the Senate occupied two buildings, then known as the Senate Office Building and the Old Senate Office Building. Janitors' trucks bearing the enigmatic acronyms S.O.B. and O.S.O.B. were frequent sights at the time.

Remarks by Senator Humphrey regarding views on unemployment compensation bill, 4532.

4532; March 22, 1961; Senator Humphrey (D-MN) makes a statement explaining the reasons that Muskie and McCarthy (D-WI) missed a vote on the Byrd (D-WV) amendments to the extended unemployment compensation act. Most Senators are anxious to compile and maintain high voting records, because a spotty voting record is one of the easiest means for a challenger to attack an incumbent Senator in an election. In addition to the overall desire to maintain a strong voting record, there are always specific votes of particular importance to various constituencies. Senators who are not present to cast such votes seek to make as full an explanation of their absence as possible. One way to do so is to have the bill manager or sponsor make a statement exonerating the absence.

Remarks by Senator Mansfield regarding absence from vote on unemployment compensation bill, 5194.

5194; March 29, 1961; Mansfield (D-MT) comment on a claim in the Washington Daily News that Muskie and McCarthy (D-WI) missed a vote in support of the Administration on the Byrd (D-WV) amendments to H.R.4808, the temporary extended unemployment compensation act. Mansfield points out that Muskie was not notified until the Senate was already two minutes into the vote (despite earlier assurances), that he reached the floor to vote within two minutes of being alerted, but that a call for the regular order shut down the vote abruptly, so Muskie and McCarthy were both marked absent although they were present and prepared to vote.

Senator Mansfield, the Majority Leader, is giving an explanation for a missed vote for the record for Senators accused by a newspaper of failure to give political support to a President of their own party.

The Senate casts its votes in person by responding to a call of the roll. To take a vote of the entire Senate therefore requires a certain amount of time. Senators are notified of an impending vote by a series of bells, which ring throughout the Senate side of the Capitol complex. It is then their responsibility to reach the Chamber so as to be able to vote. In the days before cell phones and pagers, Senators who were out of the range of the warning bells made various arrangements to be kept advised of an impending vote.

It is a long-standing tradition to hold a vote open so that Members who are some distance away can reach the Chamber and vote, but this courtesy is suspended when partisanship overcomes tradition. A call by any Senator for the "regular order" has the effect of ending an open roll call and bringing the vote to an immediate close. Senators not able to reach the chamber or not able to respond to the call of their name in time are then classed as "not voting" whether they are physically present or not.

Appointed conferee, 5328, 11268

5328; March 30, 1961; Muskie is appointed a Senate conferee on S.1, the Area Redevelopment Act. His service on this conference committee derives from the fact that he is a Member of the Senate Public Works Committee, which has jurisdiction over the Area Redevelopment Act.

11268: June 26, 1961; Muskie is appointed a Senate conferee on S.1922, the Housing Act of 1961. His service on the housing conference committee derives from the fact that he is a member of the Senate Banking and Currency Committee, which has jurisdiction over housing issues.

Because both Houses of Congress must agree on all elements of a bill before it can be placed before the President to be signed into law, temporary committees of conference are created to meet and iron out differences in the two versions of the bill as passed by each House. Service on a conference committee can be extremely significant to the final shape that a law takes.

Committee on Veterans' Affairs: create (see S. Res. 134), 7039.

7039; May 3, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor on a Cannon (D-NV) resolution, S.Res. 134, to create a Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

Bills passed over, 9109, 9111, 9980,12646

9109; May 26, 1961; Muskie objects to consideration of a bill to promote urban renewal.

9111: Muskie objects to a bill on civil rights enforcement, and the Treasury and Postal Department Appropriations bill;

9980: June 12, 1961; Muskie objects to S.120, amending the Federal Water Pollution Control Act;

12646: July 17, 1961; Muskie objects to three House bills dealing with servicemen's insurance, operating differentials for merchant marines, and disability payments;

12649: Muskie objects to a House bill on DC sales tax.

12650: Muskie objects to a House bill 3279, increasing per diem rates for government workers;

16446-16449: August 21, 1961; Muskie objects to a Peace Corps bill; a bill withholding retirement benefits from National Guard civilian employees; a bill providing pensions for tax court judges' widows; and a bill amending the Federal Reserve Act;

16453: Muskie objects to bills amending the Atomic Energy Act, the Federal Fair Loan Act, establishing a national hog cholera eradication program, amending the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, and a resolution authorizing a commission to study a Woodrow Wilson memorial;

16454: Muskie objects to a bill for a Georgia land conveyance to the Boy Scouts.

These series of occasions where Muskie "objected" to consideration various bills reflect a parliamentary practice that was common in the 1960s but has since been modified.

The Rules of the Senate prescribe virtually every action that any Senator can take on the Senate floor while the body is in session. Under the rules of the Senate, a bill must have three readings before it can be voted on. Specific Senate rules then govern procedure with respect to each step in the process.

Rule XIV requires that when a bill or resolution is introduced it must lie over for a day "under the rule" before it can be considered. Upon second reading, a bill is open to amendment and further action, unless objection to the second reading is heard. In that case, the bill in essence goes into limbo, because it cannot go to third reading unless it has had second reading.

Rather than limbo, the Senate assigns such bills to the General Orders Calendar, where they are in effect dead for the remainder of the Congress.

This procedure was used frequently in the 1960s and into the 1970s to clear the backlog of bills that had not been assigned to Committees, House bills that had been received or measures that had been introduced but then superceded for some reason. Because these backlogged bills were generally noncontroversial, the chore of objecting to second reading was often assigned to junior Senators, who were obliged to be present on the Senate floor while the procedure was conducted.

Today this process is generally made part of the end-of-day wrap-up of Senate business and no longer requires a clerk to read, a Presiding Officer to make the motion to move to second reading, and a Senator on the floor to object. Instead, the procedure is reduced to paper, and is agreed to by unanimous consent, usually with no one on the Senate floor except the two Senate leaders.

Smith, Margaret Chase: rollcall record set by, 10546.

10546; June 15, 1961; Muskie joins in a Senate tribute to Senator Smith for casting 1000 consecutive roll call votes. The congratulations offered to Senators for reaching obscure mileposts or setting new records in Senatorial duties are a feature of the Senate which adds greatly to the perception that it is an exclusive club. Although these mileposts are often meaningless to outsiders, within the Senate, it is a matter of protocol to honor such events with words of praise, particularly in the case of a Senator from one's own state.

Hayden, Carl: sympathy on death of wife (see S. Res. 166*), 11254.

11254; June 26, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a Mansfield (D-MT) Resolution, S.Res. 166, expressing the sympathy of the Senate on the death of Senator Hayden's wife.

Designated Acting President pro tempore, 11961.

11961; July 3, 1961; Muskie is named the Designated President pro tempore.

The Constitution provides that the Vice President shall be President of the Senate but that the Senate may choose a President Pro Tempore to serve in the absence of the Vice President. Under the Constitution, the Vice President has no authority to do anything preside and cast tie-breaking votes. Most Vice Presidents do not spend much time in the Presiding Officer's chair during normal Senate sessions.

Instead, the Senate chooses a President pro tempore, who is traditionally the longest-serving Senator of the majority party. It is the President pro tempore who, usually by letter, names a designee to fulfil his duties when he cannot be present. As with most such Senate chores, the designee is usually a junior Senator of the majority party.

Senate Shows Hushed New Look -- A Tribute to Mansfield, by Russell Baker. 12652.

Mansfield, Mike: tribute, 12652.

12652; July 17, 1961; Muskie statement paying tribute to Senator Mansfield (D-MT), the Senate Majority Leader, and the insertion of a Russell Baker article from the New York Times on Mansfield's leadership style and the large Senate majority that President Kennedy enjoys, which makes for a much more placid Senate.

Declaration on Rule XXII, by, 19830.

19830; September 16, 1961; Muskie is one of a number of Senators listed as signing a statement of intent to filibuster in order to bring to a vote a proposal to change Rule 22, the filibuster rule.

The Senate rule of "unlimited debate" has undergone modifications since the beginning of the body's history. At this time, the rule was that two-thirds of Senators present and voting were required to vote affirmatively to end debate in order to bring a filibuster to a close. Efforts were made repeatedly to reduce the two-thirds voting requirement so that the Senate could not be tied up and prevented from acting by the votes of just one-third-plus-one of those present. These reform efforts were strongly and successfully resisted until 1975.

Budget, Taxes, Fiscal Policy

1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

Federal estate tax: increase credit against for estate taxes paid to States (see bill S.1344),3850.

3850; March 14, 1961; Notice only of a Muskie bill, S.1344, to increase the federal credit to the states against estate taxes paid to the states.

Inheritance and estate taxes: Federal-State coordination of, 3853.

3853; March 14, 1961; Muskie introductory remarks on S.1344, a bill that would coordinate state and federal tax collections on estates and gifts along the lines recommended by the Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations.

Letter: Banking monopolies, from Maine Banking Commissioner Carleton Bradbury,9099.

Letter: Banking monopolies, from Senator Robertson, 9099.

9099; May 26, 1961; Muskie inserts in the Congressional Record a letter from a Maine bank commissioner, Carleton L. Bradbury, who objects to a proposed federal moratorium on bank mergers on the grounds that the Maine state legislature is dealing with similar issues in Maine and is making exceptions for consolidation by smaller rural banks. A letter to Muskie from the Chairman of the Banking Committee is also inserted.

Silver: permit operation of free market for (see bill S. 2420), 15882.

15882; August 15, 1961; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a Pastore (D-RI) bill, S.2420, permitting the operation of a free market for the purchase of silver.

Trade, Export Subsidies, Tariffs

1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

Meriwether, Charles M.: nomination to Export-Import Bank, 3363.

3363; March 7, 1961; Muskie makes a statement during the nomination debate of Charles M. Meriwether, to the Export-Import Bank. Meriwether was laboring under accusations of anti-semitism. On a motion to recommit (send the nomination back to the committee)the Senate voted 18 to 66 against doing so. Muskie voted against recommital.

Textile industry problems, 4376-4379, 12560

Foreign Trade, before the National Shoe Manufacturers Association, by, 4377.

Foreign trade policies, 4378, 4379.

Letter: Textile imports, by James R. Franklin, 12560.

4376-4379; March 21, 1961; In debate over the supplementary report on the problems of the domestic textile industry, Muskie speaks in support of trade management for the textile industry and includes a reprint of his remarks on the same broad subject to the National Shoe Manufacturers, in Florida earlier that month.

12560; July 14, 1961; Muskie introduces a letter about orderly marketing agreement issues from an executive of J.P. Stevens.

Domestic and foreign industries: adjust conditions of competition between certain (see bill S. 1735), 6778.

6778; April 27, 1961; Notice only of the Muskie introduction of a bill, S.1735, to adjust the conditions of competition between certain foreign and domestic industries.

Orderly marketing bill, 6792.

Foreign trade: orderly marketing bill, 6792-6794.

Table: import levels under Orderly Marketing Act, 6794.

6792-6794; April 27, 1961; Muskie introductory statement on S.1735, the Orderly Marketing Act, which is illustrated by a table showing what import levels would be under the concept

of orderly marketing.

Housing, Urban Renewal, Economic Development

1961 1st Session, 87th Congress

Why Urban Renewal? from Waterville Sentinel, A6533.

A6533; 8/21/61; Muskie inserts a Maine newspaper editorial discussing the value of urban renewal and whether urban renewal is a socialistic program.

Cash, James B.: FHA appointment, 1638.

Semer, Milton P.: Kennedy appointment, 1638

1638; February 2, 1961; Muskie makes a brief statement in support of the nominations of two Banking Committee staffers, Milton P. Semer, the former Staff Director, to be General Counsel of the Housing and Home Finance Agency, and James B. Cash, the former Committee Counsel, to be Deputy Housing Commissioner at the Public Housing Administration. Muskie refers to President Kennedy raiding Senate staffs for appointees. Muskie remarks contain no substantive comment.

Federal Limited-Profit Mortgage Corporation: establish, 9756.

Housing Act of 1961: bill (S. 1922), 9756.

9756; June 7, 1961; During debate on S.1922, the low and moderate income housing bill, Senator Javits (R-NY) proposes an amendment to establish a Federal Limited-Profit Corporation, modeled on a New York State program, to finance moderate-income housing, as a substitute for the Administration's proposal, which is to provide $750 million for a program of 40-year no-down-payment mortgages. The Administration plan had been criticized for the 40-year mortgage term contemplated, and Muskie asks Javits if his proposal doesn't permit mortgage terms as long as 50 years. (It does.) Muskie takes no other part in the debate.