1960 2nd Session, 86th Congress

Edith Q.: document as U.S. vessel (see bill S.3055), 2839.

2839; February 18, 1960; Notice only of the introduction of a Muskie bill giving full coastwise privileges to the Edith Q, a boat owned by James Quinn of Sunset, Me. At this time, the law required Congress to grant its assent to the chartering of private pleasure vessels. Commercial vessels, such as fishing boats, were routinely chartered by the Coast Guard. Private, non-commercial boat owners had to request such legislation from their representatives in the Congress. Because this was routine private legislation, Muskie made no introductory remarks, as would be normal for a public legislative bill.

Today the Coast Guard has regulations in place that permit the chartering of private recreational vessels without the need for Congressional intervention. At the time Muskie was sponsoring bills such as this, recreational boating was a much smaller leisure activity than it is today.


1960 2nd Session, 86th Congress.

Woodrow Wilson Memorial Commission: establish (see S.J. Res. 152), 956.

956; January 21, 1960; Muskie is listed as one of the cosponsors of a Williams (D-NJ) resolution to create a Woodrow Wilson Memorial in Washington D.C. This effort was not successful. The only memorial to Woodrow Wilson in Washington D.C. remains the home he moved into after he left the White House.

Northeastern Water and Related Land Resources Compact: consent of Congress to (see bill S. 2842), 591.

591; January 18, 1960; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor on a (Prescott) Bush (R-CT) bill to approve the Northeastern water compact. At this time there was no body of federal environmental law, so States had to obtain Congressional approval of any multi-state agreement over natural resources. It was usual for Senators representing the states involved to cosponsor efforts by their home states to create such multi-state agreements.

National transportation system: strengthen and improve (see bills S. 2935, 3020). 1581, 2407.

1581; January 29, 1960; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of S.2935, a Magnuson (D-WA) bill dealing with improvements to the national system of transportation..

2407: February 11, 1960; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of S.3020, a Magnuson bill dealing with improvements to the national system of transportation..

Natural resources: accelerate development and utilization of (see S.Res. 311) 8995.

8995; May 2, 1960; Moss (D-UT), for himself, Gruening (D-AK) and Muskie, orders the reprint of a report on Soviet water resources. Reprints of reports require the assent of the Senate on a Senate-only resolution (which does not require House agreement) and are a common housekeeping chore in the Senate. The report in this instance is the one that resulted from a trip to the Soviet Union in which Senators examined Soviet hydro-power plants. At this time, the construction of large hydro-power plants was often touted as a sign of progress and in the Cold War mentality of the time, also of national competitiveness with the Soviet Union. The fact that the Soviets permitted this visit by U.S. Senators suggests that Soviets believed their dam-building prowess would impress Americans. A press report on this trip can be read here.

Water resource and development program: continue study of United States and Russian (see S. Res. 325), 10750.

10750; May 23, 1960; McGee (D-NM), for himself and Muskie, introduces a resolution to refer the study of water resources to the Interior Committee, Appropriations Committee and Public Works Committee for further action. Senate Resolutions are used to require Committees to take on reviews and studies of issues where there may be no explicit jurisdiction, or where a Committee chairman has indicated he would like to pursue a review which might be challenged on the grounds of jurisdiction. Senate Committees and their Chairmen are famously jealous of the jurisdictional reach of their Committees. In this case, the Interior Committee was being asked to study a subject (Soviet water resources) traditionally within the jurisdiction of the Foreign Relations Committee.

Arlington National Cemetery: enlargement of (see bill S. 3717), 13704.

Arlington National Cemetery: enlargement, 13706.

Arlington National Cemetery: establish memorial area for medal winners, 13706.

13704; June 22, 1960; Notice only of a Muskie bill, introduced to enlarge Arlington National Cemetery.

13706; June 22, 1960; Muskie statement on the introduction of a bill, S.3717, to enlarge Arlington National Cemetery. Muskie notes that at then-current rates, the National Cemetery is expected to have filled all available space by 1968. He argues that plans to build a 68-foot high "Freedom Wall" on 20 acres of land due north of Arlington are foolish and that the ground would be put to far better use by adding it to the available space in the National Cemetery itself. Muskie is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. To read text, click here.


1960 86th Congress, 2nd Session

Visit to the Soviet Union and Poland, newsletter from, 136,

Remarks regarding visit to the Soviet Union and Poland, by Senator Gruening, 136.

136; January 7, 1960; Gruening (D-AK) inserts a copy of the Muskie newsletter report on his trip to Poland in connection with his USSR trip to inspect Soviet hydroelectric production. The newsletter describes what turned out to be Muskie's only visit to the birthplace of his father in Poland. To read text, click here.

Poland: contributions to Western civilization, 9174.

Poland: Constitution Day, 9174.

Release: visit to Poland, from, 9178,

9174; May 3, 1960; Muskie makes a short statement on May 3, Polish Constitution Day of 1791, and inserts materials on Polish history, the Polish heroes Chopin and Paderewski, and remarks by Senator Symington (D-MO) on the same topic as well as a short statement by Senate Majority Leader, Lyndon B. Johnson (D-TX), along with the text of his newsletter about his trip to Poland. Although the rise of ethnic consciousness is generally dated to the second half of the decade of the 1970s, Poles in America have long held a much more tenacious hold on their nation's heritage.

Ike's Sad Homecoming, in the Des Moines Register, 10793.

American in Paris Practically Squirmed, by Murrey Marder in the Washington Post, 10795.

Summit conference: failure, 10793-10795.

10795; May 23, 1960; During a discussion by Democratic Senators on the failure of the Eisenhower summit with Khruschev in Paris, Muskie inserts a Des Moines Register editorial, plus some constituent mail and a Washington Post article. The 1960 summit was derailed by Soviet Premier Khruschev, who seized on the discovery of the U-2 overflights of Soviet territory two weeks before the summit to throw an international tantrum. It was believed at the time that he did so to placate his hard-line Politburo colleagues in Russia. Democratic Senators joined in a discussion of the Eisenhower administration's changing series of statements about the U-2 airplane and its operations.

Muskie quite dependably joined Democratic colleagues in denouncing and excoriating Republican failures. The tradition of the one-party floor "debate" which serves to highlight the shortcomings of the other party has held steady over many decades in American politics. Members of one party arrange with each other to stage a denunciation of the other party's iniquitous or disastrous doings on a fairly regular basis, particularly during presidential election years.

Newsletter: American Plane Shot Down by Soviets-U-2 Incident, 12544.

12544; June 14, 1960; Muskie inserts his newsletter on the U-2 incident. This is of interest because of the way he discusses constituent mail. To read text, click here.

Tour of Soviet Dams by Three Senators, from I. F. Stone's Weekly publication, A1016.

A1016; February 8, 1960; EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS. Church (D-ID) inserts an I..F. Stone article about the Soviet hydro-power dam trip in the Congressional Record Appendix. The article highlights what was then a controversy over the merits of public versus private power utilities. To read the text, click here.

African Tour (a series), by May Craig, A4079, A4334, A4335, A4394, A4395, A4440, A4441.

Shots and Thoughts That Precede a Journey, by May Craig, A4079.

State Department Briefing Indicates Importance of Trip, by May Craig, A4080.

Nationalistic Drive in Africa (a series), by May Craig, A4122, A4123.

Desire for Freedom Wars With Ancient Islam Rules, by May Craig, A4140.

Era of Nationalism Brings Twilight of Kings, by May Craig, A4140.

United States Ponders, Russia Acts -- Africa on the Move, by May Craig, A4141.

Passionate Patriotism May Create Desired Union, by May Craig, A4141.

Ivory Coast Stays in French Community, by May Craig, A4176.

People of Ghana Are Planning Fast and Hard, by May Craig, A4177.

Political Stability Reflects Well-Being of Ghana, by May Craig,A4177.

Africa on the Move (a series), by May Craig, A5417, A5418, A5483,A5484, A5529, A5530, A5574, A5575, A5633, A5634, A5695.

These are a series of articles by May Craig, best explained by their headlines, which Muskie inserted in the Congressional Record as part of the unacknowledged fact that home-state reporters are generally given courtesies by their home-state Senators as a low-scale effort to maintain friendly relationships. The insertion of news articles in the Record today is probably of lesser importance than it was in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

The following are the dates on which this series of May Craig articles were inserted in the Congressional Record: 4079- 5/12/60; 4122 - 5/13/60; 4140 - 5/16/60; 4176 - 5/17/60 4334 - 5/23/60; 4394 - 5/24/60; 5413 - 6/23/60; 5483 - 6/24/60; 5529 - 6/28/60; 5574 - 6/28/60; 5633 - 6/29/60 5682 - 6/30/60

We Learned All About Japan After Damage Had Been Done, from the Portland (Maine) Press Herald, A5682.

A5682; June 30, 1960; Muskie says that there has been a great deal of debate about the recent cancellation of Eisenhower's planned trip to Japan, and recommends a Portland Press Herald editorial on it, which he proceeds to insert in the Record. The editorial argues that much was misunderstood or simply not known about the way the Japanese rammed through a recent peace treaty but that White House dithering made it look as though the cancellation of the trip were the result of a communist victory of some kind.


1960 2nd Session, 86th Congress

Administrative and policymaking positions: relating to tenure of office of persons appointed to (see S. Res. 338), 13307.

13307; June 20, 1960; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a Jackson (D-WA) resolution reflecting concern about the turnover in national security appointees, along with Humphrey (D-MN) who, with Jackson serves on the Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery. This is another of the resolutions that are common in election years, and which seek to highlight shortcomings in the incumbent Administration. They virtually never reappear in odd-numbered years and are a better hallmark of the organizational power of the opposition in an election year than of a serious concern. Both Republicans and Democrats are guilty of inventing reasons to be indignant about an incumbent Administration.

General Government matters appropriation bill, 13781.

Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations: increase funds, 13781

General Government matters appropriation bill (H.R. 11389): to amend, 13781.

13780; June 22, 1960; During debate on H.R.11389, the appropriations bill for the Executive Office of the President and general government, Muskie, for himself and Ervin (D-NC), offers an amendment to increase funding for the Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations from $100,000 to $175,000. The proposed increase is approved by voice vote.

Des Plaines Refuge Area land conveyance, 14884.

14884; June 29, 1960; Muskie outlines the details of amendments made to a land conveyance bill by the House, and the Senate concurs in the House amendment by a voice vote. A voice vote in the Senate means a unanimous vote. Any Senator may request a rollcall vote on any matter, and requires only a second Senator to back the request for a vote to be called on the roll and therefore on the record. Voice votes are generally reserved for matters of routine or minimal interest, such as this bill, which was of primary interest only to the two Senators from Illinois, and which had been debated more fully the previous year.


1960 2nd Session, 86th Congress

Poll tax: eliminate as voting requirement in national elections (see bill S. 2868), 840.

840; January 20, 1960; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a Javits (R-NY) bill to eliminate the poll tax. Throughout the 1950s poll taxes and literacy tests were used as a means to disqualify African-Americans from registering to vote. Arguments were made that the poll tax could be abolished by passing a simple bill rather than an amendment to the Constitution. Opponents of the poll tax supported both bills and amendments to the Constitution.

The question of whether literacy or tax "qualifications" were constitutional was an ongoing debate until passage of the 24th Amendment ended the practice of poll taxes entirely. The 24th Amendment was passed in the Congress in 1962 and was declared ratified on February 4,1964.

Electors of Federal officials: amend Constitution relative to qualifications of (see S.J. Res. 126), 1516.

1516; January 28, 1960; During debate on a Constitutional Amendment to fill temporary vacancies in the House of Representatives, Holland (D-FL) introduces S. J. Res. 126, his Constitutional amendment on the poll tax, as an amendment. Muskie is listed as one of the 67 cosponsors of the poll tax amendment.

During the period leading up the major civil rights legislation in the mid 1960s, Senate Committees, which are responsible for reporting bills and resolutions to the full Senate for action, were for the most part headed by conservative Southern Democrats who resisted all efforts to report out any legislation dealing with civil rights, even when the proposal enjoyed broad public support, as the poll tax amendment did. In the face of this roadblock, Senators attached their proposals as amendments to other suitable legislative vehicles. In this instance, the underlying bill was a Joint Resolution proposing a Constitutional Amendment on the filling of House vacancies.

Civil rights bill, 5103.

5103; 3/10/60: Muskie raises the question of how to structure the debate while supporters are seeking the 67 votes needed to invoke cloture and end a filibuster. To read text, click here.

Human Resources

1960 2nd Session, 86th Congress

School construction bill (S. 8): to amend, 1146, 1919, 2026, 2076.

1146; January 25, 1960; Muskie is listed as one of the original cosponsors of a series of Clark (D-PA) amendments to S.8, the School Assistance bill. Clark's amendments would permit federal funds to be used for teacher salaries at the State's discretion, would double the size of the authorization to $1.1 billion, and would eliminate the 2-year limit on the authorization.

1919; February 3, 1960; During debate on S.8, (to provide federal aid to school construction) Clark indicated he would call up his amendment but then noted that Goldwater (R-AZ) and others had preempted the time so he would not be speaking. Muskie's name appears only as a cosponsor of his amendment; there is no Muskie text here.

2026; February 4, 1960; When Clark calls up his education amendment, Muskie's name is again listed as one of the cosponsors. Muskie speaks later in the debate.

2076; February 4, 1960; Muskie is again listed as one of Clark's cosponsors when he calls up his amendment

Education: Federal school construction bill, 2027.

2027; February 4, 1960; During debate on S.8, a bill providing funds for school construction, Muskie makes a statement in support, observing that the creation of a public school system embodies the idea that a child's education should not be entirely dependent on family resources, and that the next step is to ensure that a child's education not depend entirely on geographical location. To read the text, click here.

Colleges and universities: Federal loans for construction and improvement (see bill S.3007),2289.

2289; February 9, 1960; Muskie is listed as one of the original cosponsors of a Clark (D-PA) bill, S.3007, to authorize Federal loans to colleges and universities for the construction, rehabilitation, alteration, conversion or improvement of classroom buildings and academic facilities.

Statement: Eagles' Jobs After 40 Campaign, by, 10485.

10485; May 17, 1960; HOUSE; EXTENSION OF REMARKS. Rep. Craig Hosmer of California speaks about the campaign by the Fraternal Order of the Eagles to persuade employers to hire more older workers, and cites a number of prominent citizens supportive of this effort, including Governor Edmund S. Muskie of Maine.

Pipe and Refrigeration Fitters Pension Fund: relating to effective date of qualification of (see bill S. 3694), 12970.

12970; June 17, 1960; Muskie introduction for Kennedy (D-MA) of S.3694, a bill relating to the effective date of the qualification of the Pipe and Refrigeration Fitters Local 537 Pension Fund as a qualified trust under section 401(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

This is an instance of a Senator doing a favor for a colleague who cannot be present to act in his own behalf. In this instance, Kennedy did not provide a written statement to describe his bill, so the only reference to it is the introduction by Muskie on Kennedy's behalf.

Student loan insurance bill (S. 2710): to amend, 13410.

13410; June 20, 1960; Muskie's name is listed along with other Senators as cosponsors of the amendment, in the nature of a substitute, to S.2710, the bill to provide for loan insurance on loans to students in higher education. The amendment's chief sponsor is Senator Johnson (D-TX), the Majority Leader.

Social security bill (H.R. 12580) : to amend, 15741.

15741; July 2, 1960; Byrd (D-WV) Adds Muskie and others as cosponsors to his amendment No. 6-24-60, to H.R.12580. His amendment would have lowered the Social Security retirement age to 62 for men and 60 for women. The underlying bill H.R.12580, was the major Social Security reform bill of the year. At this time, there was no automatic cost-of-living adjustment to Social Security benefits, and it had become a tradition that in even-numbered years, Congress would pass a Social Security increase. This ad hoc system was ended by enactment of the Social Security cost-of-living law in 1972.


1960 2nd Session, 86th Congress

Clauson, Clinton A.: eulogy, 384.

Resolution: Clinton Clauson eulogy, by the Maine congressional delegation, 385

Sermon: Clinton Clauson Funeral Service, remarks by Rev. Kenneth Garrison, 385

Prayer: Clinton Clauson Funeral, by Rev. John Daniel, 386.

Clinton Clauson Dies (sundry), from Maine newspapers, 386-388.

384-388: January 13, 1960; Muskie pays tribute and inserts the text of the funeral service, assorted news stories and copies of tributes from other officials, upon the death of a former Governor of Maine.

Editorial: Clauson was Man of True Honesty, in the Waterville (Maine) Sentinel, 979

979; January 21, 1960; Muskie inserts an editorial on former Maine Governor Clauson from the Waterville Morning Sentinel.

New Senator From Maine, by Olga Arnold and Laura Winslow in Ameryka magazine, 5149.

5149; March 10, 1960; McGee (D-NM) inserts a USIA (U.S. Information Agency) article (translated from the Polish) about Muskie. The article describes Muskie's first year in the Senate and discusses Muskie's parents' background in Poland. To read text, click here.

Craig, May: tribute, 10114.

As May Goes, in Good Housekeeping, 10115.

Meet May Craig, by Patricia Schroth in Downeast magazine, 10115.

10114; May 12, 1960; Muskie pays tribute to May Craig, a reporter who has been covering Maine officials and Washington for 35 years, and asks that a tribute by the magazine Good Housekeeping be printed. The tribute appears on p. 10115.

Eye of the Hurricane, by C. C. Furnas at commencement exercises, University of Buffalo , N.Y., A5049.

A5049; June 15, 1960; Muskie inserts speech by C.C.Furnas, Chancellor of the University of Buffalo, at the University's commencement about the challenges facing U.S. society as against the communists.

Julius B. Levine, at Class Day exercises, Harvard University, A5694.

A5693; June 22, 1960; Muskie inserts speech by Julius Byron Levine, of Waterville Maine, at Harvard Class Day exercises, where Levine graduates with honors, bound for Oxford.


1960 86th Congress, 2nd Session

Versatility of Jennings Randolph from the Fairmont (W. Va.) Times A268

A268, January 13, 1960; Congressional Record Appendix: Muskie inserts a Fairmont, West Virginia, newspaper item about Senator Randolph (D-WV).

Appointed on commission, 76.

76; January 7, 1960; Muskie is appointed to represent the Senate on the Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations.

Green, Theodore F.: announced retirement from the Senate, 331

331; January 13, 1960; Muskie pays tribute to a retiring Senator, Theodore F. Green, a Democrat from Rhode Island. Senator Green had served in the Senate since 1936 and, at age 93, was then the oldest serving Senator at his retirement.

House temporary vacancies, filling of (S.J.Res. 39) : to amend, 1503, 1749.

1503; January 28, 1960; Muskie is listed as a cosponsor of a Javits (R-NY) resolution, S.J. Res. 39, to amend the Constitution clarifying the rights of state governors to appoint persons to fill temporary vacancies in the Congress.

1749: February 2, 1960; During debate on S.J.Res. 39, the Javits proposal to amend the Constitution with respect to Governors' filling temporary vacancies in the Congress, Muskie is listed as one of the cosponsors. There is no Muskie text at this location.

Appointed Acting President pro tempore, 1701.

1701; February 1, 1960; Hayden (D-AZ) appoints Muskie Acting President pro tempore for the day. The Constitution provides that the Vice President shall be President of the Senate but that the Senate may choose a President Pro Tempore to serve in the absence of the Vice President. The choice of the President Pro Tempore has over the years come to be the longest-serving Senator of the majority party. It is a common practice to delegate the duties of the President Pro Tempore to a junior Senator of the majority party when necessary. The principal such duty is to preside over the Senate.

Murray, James E.: retirement from the Senate, 8869.

8869; April 28, 1960; Muskie pays tribute on the retirement of the Senator from Montana, James E. Murray, who had served in the Senate since 1934 and retired at age 84 as Chairman of the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee.

O'Mahoney, Joseph C.: retirement form the Senate, 10689.

10689; May 19, 1960; Muskie pays tribute on the retirement of the Senator from Wyoming, Joseph C. O'Mahoney, who served two periods in the Senate, from 1933 to 1952, and then again from 1954 to 1960.

Talbertt, Vernon: 50th anniversary of Senate employment, 10112.

10112; May 12, 1960; Muskie joins in Senate tributes to the chief messenger for the Secretary of the Senate who has served the Senate for half a century. In addition to Senators' own staff and the staff of Committees, who reflect the political sentiments of their employers, the Senate also employs a permanent staff of Parliamentarians, Clerks, messengers, and other factotums, as well as service personnel who repair furniture, service office machinery, and maintain the office buildings. Some of these permanent Senate workers serve for many years, and there is a tradition of passing resolutions or making statements of thanks on their retirement.


1960 2nd Session, 86th Congress

Credit extensions: require disclosure of finance charges connected with (see bill S.2755), 349.

349; January 13, 1960; Muskie's name is added as a cosponsor to S.2755, to assist in the promotion of economic stabilization by requiring the disclosure of finance charges in connection with extensions of credit, the Douglas (D-IL) Truth in Lending Bill.

Truth in Lending, by Senator Douglas before the League of Insured Savings Associations, 10116.

10116; May 12, 1960; Muskie points out that interest in the consumer credit labeling bill, S.2755, is growing, and because the nature of the bill is misunderstood, inserts a Douglas speech explicating it. Douglas (D-IL) is the principal sponsor. Muskie is a cosponsor.